Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones

Glands are located throughout various parts of the human body. These glands take on the critical task of releasing hormones, and as a whole, they are most commonly referred to as the endocrine system.

Adrenal Glands

  • This gland helps to control blood sugar.
  • Produces Adrenalin, Nor-Adrenalin, Aldosterol, Cortisol
  • Adrenalin is known as emergency hormone, fight hormone, flight hormone
  • Nor-Adrenalin is known as Surgical hormone because it controls BP
  • Aldosterol regulates sodium content
  • Cortisol regulates fat in blood
  • Promoting proper cardiovascular function
  • Properly utilizing carbohydrates and fats
  • Helps distribute stored fat
  • Promotes healthy gastrointestinal functions


Part of the Brain that Control and Relay Centre of the Endocrine System. The hypothalamus is in control of pituitary hormones by releasing the following types of hormones:

  • Thyrotrophic-releasing hormone
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone
  • Corticotrophin-releasing hormone
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Pituitary Gland

This gland is often referred to as the "master gland." It greatly influences other organs in the body, and its function is vital to the overall well-being of a person. The pituitary gland produces several hormones 

  • Growth hormone: This hormone promotes growth in childhood. For adults, it helps to maintain healthy muscle and bone mass.
  • Prolactin: In women, it stimulates milk production. In males, low levels are linked to sexual problems; however, most males make no use of the hormone.
  • Adrenocorticotropic: This hormone promotes the production of cortisol, which helps to reduce stress, maintain healthy blood pressure and more.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone: Just as the name implies, this hormone helps to regulate the body's thyroid, which is crucial in maintaining a healthy metabolism.
  • Luteinizing hormone: In women, this hormone regulates estrogen. In men, it regulates testosterone.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone: Found in both men and women. It stimulates the releasing of eggs in women and helps ensure the normal function of sperm production in men.
  •  Oxytocin: This hormone causes pregnant women to start having contractions at the appropriate time and also promotes milk flow in nursing mothers.
  • Antidiuretic hormone: Commonly referred to as vasopressin, this hormone helps to regulate water balance in the body.

Pineal Gland

  • The pineal gland releases melatonin , which helps the body recognize when it is time to go to sleep.
  • Known as biological clock
  • It seen in forbrain
  • Produces melatonin and selatonin


  • This gland secretes hormones that are commonly referred to as humoral factors and are important during puberty.
  • The role of these hormones is to make sure a person develops a healthy immune system.
  • It seen just below the sternum
  • It stops functioning in teen age
  • Produces Thymosin


  • Found in both women and men, the thyroid controls a person's metabolism.
  • It is located in the front of the neck.
  • The thyroid gland is about 2-inches long and lies in front of your throat below the prominence of thyroid cartilage sometimes called the Adam's apple.
  • This gland secretes hormones that govern many of the functions in your body, such as the way the body uses energy, consumes oxygen and produces heat.
  • The thyroid gland uses iodine from the foods you eat to make two main hormones: Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4)
  • Too much of T3 and T4 in your body is called hyperthyroidism
  • Too little T3 and T4 in your body is called hypothyroidism


  • The main function of the pancreas is to maintain healthy blood sugar levels.
  • It is a large gland located behind the stomach.
  • Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body doesn’t use insulin properly (called insulin resistance).


  • This gland is vital to proper bone development because it helps control both calcium and phosphorous levels in the body.
  • The parathyroid gland is actually a group of four small glands located behind the thyroid gland.
  • Produces parathyroid hormone.
  • Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin (one of the hormones made by the thyroid gland) have key roles in regulating the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bone.
  • Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism, characterized by alterations in the blood calcium levels and bone metabolism, are states of surplus or insufficient parathyroid function.