• The Himalayas, or Himalaya, is a mountain range in South Asia which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau.
  • The Himalayas are bordered on the north by the Tibetan Plateau, on the south by the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
  • The Himalayas span five countries: IndiaNepalBhutanChina (Tibet), and Pakistan.
  • The Himalayan range runs northwest to southeast in a 2,400 kilometres(length).
  • The range varies in width from 400 to 150 kilometres.
  • It is the youngest mountain range in the world.
  • This range is home to nine of the ten highest peaks on Earth, including the highest, Mount Everest.
  • It is located along the northern edge of the Indian plains.
  • Three of the world's major rivers — the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra — arise in the Himalayas.
  • While the Indus and the Brahmaputra rise near Mount Kailash in Tibet.
  • Ganges rises in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.
  • In India the major part of the Himalayas are occupied by Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Himalaya is a folded type mountain range.
  • The least width area of Himalayas are occupied by Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Himalaya is devided into Three major geographical entities, the Himadri (greater Himalaya), Himanchal (lesser Himalaya) and the Siwaliks (outer Himalaya).

Greater Himalaya

  • Greater Himalaya contains the highest ranges in Himalaya.
  • It is also known as Himadri.
  • This is the continuous range.
  • The average range of mountains in this range is 6000metres.
  • The highest peak in the world Mount Everest(8848m) is located in Greater Himalaya.
  • Mount Everestalso known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in Tibet as Chomolungma.

Lesser Himalaya

  • It is also known as Himachal.
  • Also called the Mahabharat Range.
  • Lesser Himalayas is a prominent range 2,000 to 3,000 meters.
  • Mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks.

Outer Hills

  • Also Known as Shivalik.
  • The altitude varies between 900 and 1100m.
  • Earthquakes and landslides are frequent in this area.
  • The longitudinal valleys lying between the Himachal and Shivaliks are known as Dun.


  • The part of Himalaya located on Jammu & Kashmir is known as Trans-Himalaya.
  • It includes Karakoram, Ladak, Saskar etc.
  • Mount K2 (Godwin-Austen)  is the highest point of the Karakoram Range and the highest point in Pakistan.
  • Mount K2 is the second highest mountain in the world at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft), after Mount Everest.
  • K2 is known as the Savage Mountain.
  • The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range.
  • The glacier's region is the highest battleground on Earth, where Pakistan and India have fought intermittently since April 1984.