Soils of India: Six Different Types of Soils Found in India
Soils of India: Six Different Types of Soils Found in India are as follows:
- These are formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers. They are rich in humus and very fertile.
- Is the best agricultural soil.
- Rich in Potash and poor in Nitrogen.
- These soils are renewed every year.
- Found in Uttaranchal, U.P., Bihar, W. Bengal, Punjab, Haryana, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu.
- Important crops – wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and jute.
2. Black Soils:
- This is also known as the Regur soil and Cotton soil.
- These soils are made up of volcanic rocks and lava-flow.
- It is concentrated over Deccan Lava Tract.
- Found in Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
- Suitable for cotton cultivation.
- Suitable for growing cereals, rice, wheat, jowar, oilseeds, citrus fruits and vegetables, tobacco and sugarcane.
- The black color of the soil is due to the presence of Iron and Aluminium compounds.
3. Red Soils:
- These are derived from weathering of ancient metamorphic rocks of Deccan Plateau.
- Its redness is due to iron composition.
- When iron content is lower it is yellow or brown.
- Found in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Orissa.
- Suitable for cultivation of rice, ragi, tobacco and vegetables.
4. Laterite Soils:
- These soils are formed under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods.
- Due to high rainfall, top soil gets washed away. This process is called leaching.
- Is red due to the presence of iron oxide which is formed by leaching.
- TWO TYPES : Upland Laterites and Lowland Laterites
- Agriculturally unimportant.
- Found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
5. Mountain Soils:
- Mountain soils are found in, as the name suggests, in mountainous regions.
- They are quite prone to soil erosion as a result of the top soil getting washed away due to the steep slopes of the mountains after a period of heavy rainfall.
- These soils are mostly thin and infertile.
- These include peat, meadow and forest hill soils.
- Found in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal, Assam, Sikkim as well as higher reaches of Arunachal Pradesh have mountain soil.
- Tea is grown in those areas which receive sufficient rainfall.
6. Arid and Desert Soils:
- Desert soils are found in arid regions which receive very little rainfall.
- Low rainfall and high temperature are reasons for the formation of this soil .
- These soils are generally sandy and deficient in organic matter.
- Only suitable for drought resistance crops like millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses.
- These soils are made fertile by adding Gypsum.
- Found in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.