Soils of India: Six Different Types of Soils Found in India

Soils of India: Six Different Types of Soils Found in India are as follows:

1.Alluvial Soils:

  • These are formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers. They are rich in humus and very fertile.
  • Is the best agricultural soil.
  • Rich in Potash and poor in Nitrogen.
  • These soils are renewed every year.
  • Found in Uttaranchal, U.P., Bihar, W. Bengal, Punjab, Haryana, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Tamil Nadu.
  • Important crops – wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and jute.

2. Black Soils:

  • This is also known as the Regur soil and Cotton soil.
  • These soils are made up of volcanic rocks and lava-flow.
  • It is concentrated over Deccan Lava Tract.
  • Found in Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
  • Suitable for cotton cultivation.
  • Suitable for growing cereals, rice, wheat, jowar, oilseeds, citrus fruits and vegetables, tobacco and sugarcane.
  • The black color of the soil is due to the presence of Iron and Aluminium compounds.

3. Red Soils:

  • These are derived from weathering of ancient metamorphic rocks of Deccan Plateau.
  • Its redness is due to iron composition.
  • When iron content is lower it is yellow or brown.
  • Found in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Orissa.
  • Suitable for cultivation of rice, ragi, tobacco and vegetables.

4. Laterite Soils:

  • These soils are formed under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods.
  • Due to high rainfall, top soil gets washed away. This process is called leaching.
  • Is red due to the presence of iron oxide which is formed by leaching.
  • TWO TYPES : Upland Laterites and Lowland Laterites
  • Agriculturally unimportant.
  • Found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.

5. Mountain Soils:

  • Mountain soils are found in, as the name suggests, in mountainous regions.
  • They are quite prone to soil erosion as a result of the top soil getting washed away due to the steep slopes of the mountains after a period of heavy rainfall.
  • These soils are mostly thin and infertile.
  • These include peat, meadow and forest hill soils.
  • Found in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal, Assam, Sikkim as well as higher reaches of Arunachal Pradesh have mountain soil.
  • Tea is grown in those areas which receive sufficient rainfall.

6. Arid and Desert Soils:

  • Desert soils are found in arid regions which receive very little rainfall.
  • Low rainfall and high temperature are reasons for the formation of this soil .
  • These soils are gen­erally sandy and deficient in organic matter.
  • Only suitable for drought resistance crops like millets, barley, cotton, maize and pulses.
  • These soils are made fertile by adding Gypsum.
  • Found in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.